Je m'absente quelques jours, bises à tous et à toutes: The PowerTools give professional-grade analysis tools to private traders.
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De belles créations sont possibles avec les logiciels proposés! Bonne soirée à vous. Va falloir que je relise tout ça quant je serais moins fatigué. C'est un sujet passionnant. Tes créations sont super. La parisette pourrait-elle être un exemple fractale naturelle? C'est fascinant ce que tu fais là et ta photo de feuille est admirable! Je verrai ça plus en détail plus-tard! Pour ma part, tout ça me semble tout-de-même compliqué ; je publierai prochainement sur mon blog, un ou des exemplaires faits maison en assemblant simplement 4 images pour obtenir une belle symétrie.
Anonyme, dommage que tu n'ai pas mis ton nom Ce n'est pas une photo de feuille, c'est réalisé avec Photoshop, comme c'est écrit sous l'image! Kikou Noushka, et bien tu es douée et je suis admirative de tes belles réalisations avec ce logiciel. Je serais bien incapable d'en faire autant COUCOU et bien tu sais j'adore tes formes et j'aime aussi en faire tu a une superbe idée de former des forme en couleur bisou.
J'ai bien aimé l'éponge de Menger Heu, je rigole bien sûr! En poursuivant la recherche sur Wikipédia, voilà sur quoi je suis tombé: C'est superbe et j'admire ta patience.
Jma, en effet beaucoup de films et de jeux vidéos sont basés sur ces 3 principes! Rien que la saga de la "Guerre des Etoiles"!!!
La science nous réserve encore bien des surprises et je concocte un autre article intéressant pour cet hiver, quand il fera bien froid!! C'est super bien fait mais trop compliqué pour moi. Je les spam direct! Ma nouvelle page Facebook pour découvrir plus de photos, d'oiseaux notamment: Carine-Noushka Clicquer sur les photos révèlera mieux leur netteté.
Click on pics to better appreciate their sharpness. Je m'absente quelques jours, bises à tous et à toutes: Away for a few days, keep well: Ca n'arrive pas souvent! Par mauvais temps, je bricole avec ce logiciel puissant et plein de possibilités créatives, et j'apprends des choses surprenantes! Les fractales sont un exemple fascinant. Il y a moyens de réaliser ces fractales: Mais c'est également réalisable avec Photoshop, d'une certaine manière.
J'ai déjà publié un article proche de ce concept sur la Séquence de Fibonacci, ici: Ma réalisation avec Photoshop grâce à ce tutoriel pour ceux qui lisent l'anglais! Une fractale est l'image exacte d'un "tout" infini.
In this way, extensive industrialisation ies and housing developments s resulted in new, fairly homogenous spaces in terms of functions and physical parameters but involved an increasing differentiation in social and spatial terms i. Although, they represented a minority of planners, their role was very important in initiating the renewal and preservation of historical core of cities. Lukovich T, The third stream is defined as the "organic school" rooted in the traditional Hungarian architecture had an increasing influence in the ies.
It represented rather a paradigm of architecture than that of town planning, but shaped cities through designing more and more dwellings and public buildings. A breakthrough has come in urban studies and also in town planning in the course of the decade. Geographers turned towards sociology to adapt new methods. They re-discovered urban ecology and its statistical devices e. Since the late ies, behavioural studies has also been extended to a wide range of urban issues to discover the system of relations between factors that shaped urban space.
In terms of land use, conservation and rehabilitation of industrial districts, development of services, protection of the city centre and rehabilitation of declining residential areas are the main elements of the "new deal" of town planning in Hungary.
New principals manifested in urban sub-centres included in local plans, to provide public and basic consumer services are to be developed to relieve centralised spatial structures. In both cities, local economies rested on food processing and light industries that were closely related to their agricultural hinterland.
The scale of local industrial enterprises were small and medium sized. It was also a period of the rapid development of urban services i. As a consequence of economic development and population growth, it was a period of spatial expansion, as well that occurred in a specific way 6.
The outskirt of cities was divided into lots and let to leaseholders i. In this way, construction of industrial plants was also controlled by local authorities. Local economies were stagnating, only several service industries e. In lack of resources, communities could not deal with housing and infrastructure deficiencies and an uncontrolled expansion of cities was initiated by immigrants.
Large scale investments of central government manifested either in industrial developments from the ies on or in "normative" support provided by the central government per capita in the ies and ies. To achieve a better position in the re-distributive system, local authorities provided spatious industrial sites at very low prices, encouraged immigration and increased their administrative area swallowing the surrounding villages.
In this period, master plans included ambitious ideas about the extension of industrial districts and transformation of peripheral residential areas of low density and rural landscape into high-rise housing estates. The latter were considered as a desired change towards a more "urban" texture of cities of the Great Plain.
Peripheral rural spaces 9 included in Szeged and Debrecen were transformed into highly or less appreciated suburban districts in the ies and ies that was not included in master plans.
Such trends furthermore, hierarchical approach of town planning and insufficient capacities of consumer services in the "early" housing estates 10 strengthened the centralised spatial structure of cities in terms of services, transportation routes and daily paths of residents.
Despite such similarities, their texture and spatial complexity are different. The reason for this is in their past: Debrecen is a product of "organic" spatial development, but Szeged was re-planned and re-built completely after the flood that had devastated the city in As a consequence, the leasehold system discussed above emerged and expanded and the town sprawled over the medieval walls 13 that resulted in a very loose, scarcely populated rural spatial structure including temporary dwellings, gardens, stables and plough land on the periphery of the medieval core Planned elements appeared only on the edge of the medieval core.
An industrial "ring" emerged along the main railway lines stretching from the West to the Southeast. A substantial increase in urban population also effected peripheral areas, as immigrants set up dwellings in such districts lacking urban amenities. Despite the rapid changes occurred from the ies on, the first master plan was accepted only in Planners had to deal with the problem of an irregular street network in the city centre, deficiencies of the infrastructure on peripheral areas, lacking greenery, housing problems and the rural landscape of the edge.
New, planned elements of regular spatial structure were added to the existing structure in the interwar period such as several small scale housing developments, a new campus for the university and cultural sub-centre nearby.
Such steps increased the area characterised by regular structures significantly, but traditional elements of space i. Urban space must be considered as a complex system including regular and irregular elements that are characteristic of either the retarded development, or the centrally planned system or cities of the Great Plain.
Rings and avenues provided a flexible framework for the city in a period of economic prosperity and population growth The master plan that was considered one of the earliest ones in Hungary defined housing standards by zones and set up a plan for infrastructure development. Development of industrial plants and institutions for public services were controlled by local authorities.
An ample space was defined as city centre for retailing, business and public services and residential function between the river Tisza and the inner ring. Wholesale and manufacturing was settled along the river and in the industrial district on the Northwest. They manifested in rural spaces that were transformed into residential areas lacking urban amenities particularly, after the World War I.
Several elements of the master plan were in harmony with urban traditions, such as spacious streets, ample public spaces and lower density of the medieval residential districts 15 that were characteristic of market centres of the Great Plain as well. Industrial developments were concentrated in the western part of Szeged that resulted in an ample space characterised by mono-functional land-use structure i.
Urban space fragmented by avenues and boulevards allowed planners to separate traditional residential areas from high-rise housing estates. In this way, the planned spatial framework of the city saved the land use pattern of the city centre and the surrounding historical districts and protected residential areas from industrial pollution through land use zoning. The process involved changes rather in quality than in quantity of urban land use.
Urban space was differentiated by new service businesses that transformed city centres, declining industrial areas and the surroundings of arterial roads. However, land use structures and urban form descended from the former system seem to be resistant to recent changes and still have a major impact on spatial development of cities moving towards either more regular or irregular forms.
Land use maps are imprints of distinct stages of urban development that reflects efforts of residents, local leaders, businessmen, town planners and the central government to drive and control spatial changes.
In this chapter, devices of fractal geometry particularly, the analysis of perimeter and scale relations was employed to associate trends in transformation of urban space towards regularity and irregularity with distinct stages of economic, social and political development such as the post-war years, industrialisation of provincial towns ies and ies , the years of "public tertiarisation" ies and the transition period.
In this sense, the present paper must be considered rather a theoretical than a methodological one. Although, digital maps of major cities are available, they include only recent boundaries and structures. Digital processing of the information of old maps required a lot of time. For this reason, we used traditional cartographic methods for stage-counting of perimeter approximation. Dimensions of land use parcels were stabilised in the 5 th -7 th in several cases, 8 th or 9 th step of subsequent iterations of contiguous stages.
In this way, more than 12 steps in the iteration was not needed. In our interpretation, dimensions explain to what extent our spatial object fill the space in.
If the value of the dimension was. The analysis of subsequent stages of urban spatial development applying fractal dimensions in economic, social and political context promoted the modelling of "centrally planned" and transitioning cities.
In the post-war years, the area occupied by industrial plants was relatively small, but large scale investments resulted in enormous increase in industrial land use in Szeged and Debrecen ies and ies.
In the transition period, there were only slight changes in industrial land use. Since we are aware of substantial transformation occurred in local economies in terms of structure, size and organisation, we must look for better indices of spatial transition.
Industrial use was substantially reduced i. In parallel, a new industrial strip emerged along the Budapest-Debrecen axis M4 on the western part of the city. The transition of the urban economy accelerated the displacement of industrial activities from their traditional terrain i.
In Debrecen, institutions of education and social care i. As a consequence of its the mosaic-like structure, retail land use remained dispersed in the industrial district of Debrecen before and after the transition.
Retail activities were scarce in the area before the transition but it was changed dramatically in the ies i. The recent land use structure is more compact and homogenous as a result of the emergence of retail and wholesale strips along main routes.
Change in the dimension of industrial land use in industrial districts. Diffusion of industrial activities resulted in a dispersed spatial structure that is represented by the dimension of industrial land use in Such trends furthermore, the emergence of the western industrial district increased the value of the dimension by Although, the period of large scale industrialisation was over in the early ies, spatial transition has not ended yet: Such steps were followed by new green field investments in the ies that explain the high value of the dimension of industrial land use.
Spatial distribution of large scale developments of the centrally planned system were determined by the existing structure that was expanding westwards, and fragmented by open spaces, institutions and recreation areas.
As a consequence, the value of industrial land use dimension slightly increased and remained stable by In the transition period, the declining value is a result of the expansion of other urban functions but not that of a new period of industrial expansion. Changing dimensions of institutional and commercial land use in industrial districts.
Despite the different spatial structure of the discussed cities, dimensions changed in a similar manner. The increase is a result of the planned deconcentration of public services to separate city centres and residential areas from industrial districts and 17 relieve the congestion in CBDs.
Wholesale and retail units formed contiguous strips along arterial routes. In Szeged, commercial land use penetrated into industrial districts more "deeply" that resulted in a larger rise in the dimension.
As a consequence, they include a wide range of institutions of public administration, education, health and social care, political and local organisations etc. The area occupied by such functions and their spatial structure was changing due to the development of such services, prevailing planning paradigms, and transition of the physical framework i.
The area was considered as the scene for development of public services in the subsequent master plans and distinct functions were separated by land use zoning e.
In the transition period, rising real estate prices broke off this structure and dispersed public services. In parallel, the area occupied by retail functions increased dramatically and fragmented the city centre into a mosaic of shops, institutions, business services and residential functions. It is a consequence of the relatively small extension of the "urban" centre that was surrounded by streets of rural character e. As a consequence, decentralisation of public services was driven towards farther areas of the city, such as the western edge of the city centre and the "Great Forest" on the North that was transformed into a major centre of recreation, culture, higher education and health services.
In this way, a relatively dispersed structure of public services emerged in Debrecen. The axial structure of the city centre is also reflected by the diffusion of retail shops that moved from the main road towards the surrounding blocks increasing the diversity of land use.
Dimensions of retail function and public services in city centres. The process was going on in the transition period as the land used by public services was increasing quickly forming and adjacent district of institutions in the core of the city centre and a new zone along the inner ring where such land use is sporadic. Since the former trend was prevailing in the ies, the value of dimension increased significantly. Since a number of new institutions were established in the transition period that concentrated in the city centre, the dimension slightly increased.
The difference between the analysed cities in respect of dimensions must be explained by the consequent planning practice driving the formation of the CBD that was present in Szeged and lacking in Debrecen. Increasing dimension of such land use in both cities reflect the emergence of adjacent shopping areas along main shopping streets and in their vicinity in the ies although, historical roots of retail cores are different The lower value in the case of Szeged is a consequence of the strictly planned and zoned structure.
Shops filled the space in between public and business service land use parcels, or residential ones and crossed the inner ring in lack of sites. Results of our analysis supported the findings we presumed in our empirical studies. To reveal socio-economic trends behind spatial changes, empirical studies are need and could not be replaced by mathematical models.
Detailed knowledge on localities including economic, social, political and spatial information is needed to explain dimensions particularly, in the framework of historical analysis.